Causes of Dry Eyes: A Comprehensive Guide

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Are you tired of dealing with itchy, irritated, or burning eyes? You're not alone. Dry eye syndrome is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. In this article, we'll explore the various causes of dry eyes and provide helpful tips for managing this frustrating condition.

Understanding Dry Eyes

Dry eye syndrome occurs when the eyes don't produce enough tears or the tears evaporate too quickly. This leads to inadequate lubrication and protection for the eye's surface, resulting in discomfort, redness, watering,  and even blurred vision.

Symptoms of Dry Eyes

Common symptoms of dry eyes include:

  • Redness
  • Itching
  • Burning sensation
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Feeling like something is in your eye (foreign body sensation)
  • Watery eyes (as a reflex to dryness)
  • Blurred vision
  • Common Causes of Dry Eyes

Let's explore some of the most common causes of dry eyes and what you can do about them.

Oculus Keratograph machine for Dry eye treatment


As we grow older, our tear production naturally declines. This is especially true for postmenopausal women, who often experience hormonal changes that can contribute to dry eyes. Unfortunately, there's not much we can do about aging, but understanding that it's a factor can help you be proactive about managing your eye health.

Environmental Factors

Exposure to dry, windy, or smoky environments can exacerbate dry eye symptoms. Even air conditioning and heating systems can cause dryness by reducing the humidity levels indoors. To combat this issue, consider using a humidifier in your home or office and wear sunglasses or protective eyewear when outdoors.

Medical Conditions

Certain medical conditions can cause or worsen dry eyes. These include autoimmune disorders like Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus, as well as diabetes and thyroid issues. If you suspect that an underlying medical condition might be contributing to your dry eyes, it's essential to speak with your healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.


Many medications, both prescription and over-the-counter, can cause dry eyes as a side effect. Some examples include antihistamines, decongestants, antidepressants, and blood pressure medications. If you believe your medication might be causing your dry eyes, talk to your doctor about possible alternatives or adjustments to your current prescription.

Eye Strain and Digital Devices

In today's digital world, we spend a significant amount of time staring at screens. This can lead to eye strain and a reduced blink rate, which in turn can cause dry eyes. To minimize this issue, follow the 20-20-20 rule: every 20 minutes, take a 20-second break and look at something 20 feet away. This will help reduce eye strain and maintain proper tear distribution.

Less Common Causes of Dry Eyes

While the above causes are more prevalent, there are other less common factors that can contribute to dry eyes.

Vitamin Deficiency

A deficiency in essential vitamins, such as vitamin A, can lead to dry eyes. Vitamin A plays a crucial role in maintaining a healthy tear film and supporting overall eye health. Make sure to consume a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and other nutrient-dense foods to avoid vitamin deficiencies.

Hormonal Imbalances

Hormonal imbalances, particularly in women, can contribute to dry eyes. Fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels during pregnancy, menstruation, and menopause can negatively affect tear production. If you suspect that hormonal imbalances are causing your dry eyes, consult with your healthcare provider for appropriate treatment options.

Prevention and Management

Now that we know the causes of dry eyes, let's explore some strategies to prevent and manage this condition.

Lifestyle Changes

  • Stay hydrated: Drinking enough water throughout the day is essential for overall health and can help maintain proper tear production.
  • Blink regularly: When focusing on a task, remember to blink frequently to keep your eyes moist and healthy.
  • Adjust your screen: Ensure your computer or device screen is at eye level to reduce eye strain and promote better blinking habits.
  • Use artificial tears: Over-the-counter artificial tears can provide temporary relief from dry eye symptoms.

Medical Treatments

Mibo thermoflo machine for dry eye treatment

If your dry eyes persist despite lifestyle changes, it's essential to consult with an eye care professional. They may recommend treatments such as:

  • Prescription eye drops: These can help increase tear production or improve the quality of your tears.
  • Punctal plugs: These small devices can be inserted into the tear ducts to block tear drainage, which helps retain more moisture on the eye's surface.
  • Mibo Flow: This in-office treatment uses heat and gentle pressure to unclog the oil-producing glands in the eyelids, improving tear quality and reducing dry eye symptoms.

Dry eyes can be a frustrating and uncomfortable condition, but understanding its causes and taking proactive steps to prevent and manage it can significantly improve your quality of life. Remember to stay hydrated, protect your eyes from harsh environments, and consult with your healthcare provider if you suspect an underlying medical condition or medication might be contributing to your dry eyes.

Frequently Asked Questions About Dry Eyes

Can dry eyes cause permanent damage?

While dry eyes can be uncomfortable and interfere with daily activities, they rarely cause permanent damage if managed properly. However, if left untreated, severe cases can lead to complications like corneal abrasions or infections.

Do certain foods help with dry eyes?

Eating a balanced diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin A, and other essential nutrients can help maintain overall eye health and reduce the risk of dry eyes.

Can wearing contact lenses cause dry eyes?

Contact lens wear can contribute to dry eyes, especially if you wear them for extended periods or don't clean them properly. If you experience dry eyes while wearing contacts, talk to your eye care professional about switching to a different lens type or using lubricating eye drops.

Is dry eye syndrome permanent?

Dry eye syndrome can be a chronic condition for some people, but with proper management and treatment, it is often possible to alleviate symptoms and improve overall eye comfort. In some cases, addressing underlying causes can lead to a significant reduction in dry eye symptoms.

How do I know if I have dry eyes or allergies?

Dry eyes and allergies can share similar symptoms, such as itching, redness, and tearing. However, allergies are often accompanied by additional symptoms like sneezing, nasal congestion, and swelling. If you're unsure whether your symptoms are due to dry eyes or allergies, it's best to consult with an eye care professional or healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

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